The maize is a crop of the gamine family coming from Centro America and with thousands of years old. The approximate world production is of 790 million of tons of grain in 158 million of hectares. The main producers are United States, China, Brazil, having nearly the 62% of the total world production.
The maize requires template climates in its growing stage. It needs a lot of light and in moist climates its output is lower. In the germination of the seed, the temperature must be around 20ºC. The maize is not resistant to low temperatures and freezes.
The maize can be cultivated in different types of soil, however, the following are recommended: Rich in organic material, deep, well drained and saline soils with good capacity of water retention.
Depending on the variety, the separation of line can vary between 1 and 1,5 m and the separation between the plants from 20 to 25 cm.
Maize is a water demanding crop needing around 5mm daily.
The irrigation intensity changes along the life of the crop. In the germination period, when plant start growing it is necessary less amount of water but maintaining a constant humidity. In the vegetative growing is when a higher quantity of water is required and it is recommended to irrigate from 10 to 15 days before flowering.
The flowering period is the most critical one, because of this period depends on the quantity of production obtained so it is advisable to make irrigations which keep the humidity and permits an efficient pollination and setting. Al last, to the thickening and ripening of the cob the quantity of water applied must be reduced.